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Treatment strategies for neuroendocrine liver metastases: a systematic review

      Abstract

      Background

      Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are often diagnosed when metastatic. The liver is the main site of metastases. Unfortunately, optimal management of neuroendocrine liver metastases remains a topic of debate. The aim of this study was to make a systematic review of the current literature about the results of the different treatments of neuroendocrine liver metastases.

      Methods

      A systematic review was conducted for English language publications from 1995 to 2021. Outcomes were analyzed according to survival, disease-free survival, and in the case of systemic therapies, progression-free survival.

      Results

      5509 patients were analyzed in the review. 67% of patients underwent surgery achieving 5 years overall survival despite only 30% percent without a recurrence. 60% of patients that had received a transplant reached 5 years survival with a low disease-free survival rate (20%). Five-year survival rate was 36.2% for patients undergoing loco-regional therapies.

      Conclusion

      Surgical resection is the best treatment when metastases are resectable, with the highest rate of survival, although liver transplantation shows good results for patients not eligible for surgery. Loco-regional therapies may be useful when surgical resection is contraindicated, or selectively used as a bridge to surgery or transplantation. Systemic therapies are indicated in patients for whom curative treatment cannot be obtained.
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