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A selective anticoagulation policy for splanchnic vein thrombosis in acute pancreatitis is associated with favourable outcomes: experience from a UK tertiary referral centre

      Abstract

      Introduction

      There is a paucity of data on the incidence, risk factors, and treatment of splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) in acute pancreatitis (AP).

      Methods

      All AP admissions between 2018 and 2021 across North East of England were included. Anticoagulation was considered in the presence of superior mesenteric vein/portal vein (SMV/PV) thrombus or progressive splenic vein thrombus (SpVT). The impact of such a selective anticoagulation policy, on vein recanalisation rates and bleeding complications were explored.

      Results

      401 patients (median age 58) were admitted with AP. 109 patients (27.2%) developed SVT. The splenic vein in isolation was the most common site (n = 46) followed by SMV/PV (n = 36) and combined SMV/PV and SpVT (n = 27). On multivariate logistic regression alcohol aetiology (OR 2.64, 95% CI [1.43–5.01]) and >50% necrosis of the pancreas (OR 14.6, 95% CI [1.43–383.9]) increased the risk of developing SVT. The rate of recanalization with anticoagulation was higher for PVT (66.7%; 42/63) than in SpVT (2/11; p = 0.003). 5/74 of anticoagulated patients developed bleeding complications while 0/35 patients not anticoagulated had bleeding complications (p = 0.4).

      Conclusion

      The risk of SVT increases with AP severity and with extent of pancreatic necrosis. A selective anticoagulation policy for PVT and progressive SpVT in AP is associated with favourable outcomes with no increased risk of bleeding complications.
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